A preliminary comparison of the mouse and human genomes (2023)

Abstract

Accurate annotated assemblies of the mouse and human genomes enable a detailed comparison of the organization and evolution of the two genomes. We have completed several assemblies of both the mouse, with and without public data, and human genomes. Analysis of these assemblies suggests the mouse genome is about 10% smaller than the human genome primarily because of a difference in the content of repetitive DNA between the two genomes. More than 300,000 positions in these two genomes can be aligned with one another based on short segments of sequence similarity. These conserved segments significantly enhance the resolution of the resultant comparative maps and can be used to divide the genomes into regions of conserved-shared synteny. The genes found in such regions are highly conserved as is their relative order and orientation. Comparison of the human and mouse genome is expected to be key to deciphering the important biological information encoded in the mammalian genome. A prerequisite to comparing complex genomes such as those of mouse and human is the availability of annotated assemblies of both genomes that are comparable in quality and completeness. Since February 2001, we have assembled, annotated and delivered to our subscribers two versions of the human genome and two versions of the mouse genome. A third assembly of the human genome is being completed and will be delivered by fall of 2002. These annotated assemblies provide the starting materials for the genome-wide comparisons of the mouse and human reported here. We will begin with a description of the first Celera whole genome assembly of the mouse to provide a general basis of the quality and completeness of these data and then will report the results of a preliminary comparison between these two genomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-181
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Congress Series
Volume1246
Issue numberC
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2002

Keywords

  • Genomes
  • Human
  • Mouse

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Mural, R. J., Myers, E. W., Smith, H., Gabor Miklos, G. L., Wides, R., Halpern, A., Li, P. W., Sutton, G., Nadeau, J. H., Salzberg, S. L., Holt, R., Evans, C. A., Lu, F., Biddick, K., Bonazzi, V., Delcher, A., Zheng, X. H., Yandell, M., Rusch, D., ... Adams, M. D. (2002). A preliminary comparison of the mouse and human genomes. International Congress Series, 1246(C), 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5131(02)01137-8

A preliminary comparison of the mouse and human genomes. / Mural, Richard J.; Myers, Eugene W.; Smith, Hamilton et al.

In: International Congress Series, Vol. 1246, No. C, 01.12.2002, p. 169-181.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Mural, RJ, Myers, EW, Smith, H, Gabor Miklos, GL, Wides, R, Halpern, A, Li, PW, Sutton, G, Nadeau, JH, Salzberg, SL, Holt, R, Evans, CA, Lu, F, Biddick, K, Bonazzi, V, Delcher, A, Zheng, XH, Yandell, M, Rusch, D, Majoros, W, Hoover, J, Wang, J, Venter, JC & Adams, MD 2002, 'A preliminary comparison of the mouse and human genomes', International Congress Series, vol. 1246, no. C, pp. 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5131(02)01137-8

Mural RJ, Myers EW, Smith H, Gabor Miklos GL, Wides R, Halpern A et al. A preliminary comparison of the mouse and human genomes. International Congress Series. 2002 Dec 1;1246(C):169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0531-5131(02)01137-8

Mural, Richard J. ; Myers, Eugene W. ; Smith, Hamilton et al. / A preliminary comparison of the mouse and human genomes. In: International Congress Series. 2002 ; Vol. 1246, No. C. pp. 169-181.

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(Video) Human Genome and the Evolution of Medicine | Stylianos Antonarakis | TEDxThessaloniki

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(Video) Preliminary Cancer Talk with Professor Penny Jeggo

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(Video) Manolis Kellis: Human Genome and Evolutionary Dynamics | Lex Fridman Podcast #113

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FAQs

How similar is the human genome to the mouse genome? ›

On average, the protein-coding regions of the mouse and human genomes are 85 percent identical; some genes are 99 percent identical while others are only 60 percent identical. These regions are evolutionarily conserved because they are required for function.

Why are mouse and human genomes similar? ›

Humans and mice don't look alike, but both species are mammals and are biologically very similar. Almost all of the genes in mice share functions with the genes in humans. That means we develop in the same way from egg and sperm, and have the same kinds of organs (heart, brain, lungs, kidneys, etc.)

Why would a researcher compare the DNA sequences of a human to a mouse? ›

Specific DNA sequence differences linked to diseases in humans often have counterparts in the mouse genome. Genes whose expression patterns are related in one species also tend to be similarly related in the other species. These findings validate the importance of using mouse models to study certain human diseases.

How many genes do mice and humans share? ›

Mice and humans share approximately 70 percent of the same protein-coding gene sequences, which is just 1.5 percent of these genomes.

How genetically similar are humans and mice quizlet? ›

The human genome shares 99% of its genes with the mouse genome. A comparison of genomes confirms that mice and humans shared a common ancestory more recently than humans and pufferfish.

What is the difference between mice and humans? ›

One of the differences is that humans lack a large part of the G protein-coupled receptors on the insulin-producing beta-cells that mice have and for which many drugs are developed. Of note, some of the receptors were only found in mice and others only in humans.

How is it that humans can have the same number of genes as a mouse and that 50% of those genes are identical to those in yeast? ›

The truth is, we have a lot of the same genes as many other organisms because our cells and their cells function in much the same way.

How are animals biologically similar to humans? ›

Biological similarity of humans and other animals

Animals, from mice to monkeys, have the same organs (heart, lungs, brain etc.) and organ systems (respiratory, cardiovascular, nervous systems etc.) which perform the same functions in pretty much the same way.

What method could be used to insert human genes into mice? ›

Mice can be engineered by inserting a targeting vector containing the gene of interest into a zygote, or into embryonic stem cells that are then injected into a blastocyst. There are several types of genetically engineered mice: transgenic mice, knockout mice, and mice with conditional or inducible gene expression.

What percentage of DNA do humans share with rats? ›

Chimpanzees are our closest relative as a species and we share at least 98% of our genome with them. Our feline friends share 90% of homologous genes with us, with dogs it is 82%, 80% with cows, 69% with rats and 67% with mice [1].

How is it that humans can have the same number of genes as a mouse and that 50% of those genes are identical to those in yeast? ›

The truth is, we have a lot of the same genes as many other organisms because our cells and their cells function in much the same way.

Do rats have similar DNA to humans? ›

However, they also found that the rat genome contains about the same number of genes as the human and mouse genomes.

Which animal has closest DNA to humans? ›

Ever since researchers sequenced the chimp genome in 2005, they have known that humans share about 99% of our DNA with chimpanzees, making them our closest living relatives.

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